Volume: 7
Issue: 3
Year: 2019
J ETA Maritime Sci: 7 (3)
Volume: 7  Issue: 3 - 2019
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EDITORIAL (ED)
1.Editorial
Selçuk Nas
doi: 10.5505/jems.2019.26121  Pages 192 - 193
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2.Journal of ETA Maritime Science (Volume: 7 Issue: 3, 2019)

Pages 192 - 263
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INDUSTRIAL PERSPECTIVE
3.“Better Together!”
Ayşe Aslı Başak
doi: 10.5505/jems.2019.36002  Pages 194 - 195
United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, SDG#5 focuses on "Gender Equality" and 2019 year's World Maritime Day theme has been indicated as "Empowering Women in the Maritime Community" by International Maritime Organization (IMO) which is an agency of the United Nations based in London. The Day of the Seafarer 2019 was celebrated on 25th of June with the hashtag of “#iamonboard with gender equality all around the world as IMO’s campaign.

As The Chamber of Marine Engineers, Turkey we are the first organization in Turkey which lead the IMO’s #iamonboard with gender equality campaign and it brought a huge impression to the maritime industry worldwide. With the results of our cooperative work with IMO, we are so glad to announce that we have established a new international platform called “SheFarers”. SheFarers Platform is non-profit and aims to create awareness on women who work at sea, to promote their careers on board and ashore with specialized educational programs, to protect rights of women on board and to facilitate working standards for all women in the industry whom involve in field work.

SheFarers Platform is established in Turkey however always focuses on brining all female seafarers together internationally and the main project area is to set up a new mentorship program for women at sea and ashore in all maritime fields by starting in Turkey.

The first event of SheFarers will be held on 26th of September 2019 which is World Maritime Day and SheFarers invites all to celebrate the theme of “Empowering Women in the Maritime Community” and #iamonboard campaign of IMO.

SheFarers is very active on social media to emphasize women’s recognition in every field of the maritime industry and can be followed on the below accounts

Website: www.shefarers.org
Instagram: @she.farers
Facebook: SheFarers
Twitter: @shefarers
LinkedIn: SheFarers
Direct contact: info@shefarers.org

Capt. Ayse Asli Basak
Co-Founder, SheFarers Platform
Board Member, The Chamber of Marine Engineers, Turkey
United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, SDG#5 focuses on "Gender Equality" and 2019 year's World Maritime Day theme has been indicated as "Empowering Women in the Maritime Community" by International Maritime Organization (IMO) which is an agency of the United Nations based in London. The Day of the Seafarer 2019 was celebrated on 25th of June with the hashtag of “#iamonboard with gender equality all around the world as IMO’s campaign.

As The Chamber of Marine Engineers, Turkey we are the first organization in Turkey which lead the IMO’s #iamonboard with gender equality campaign and it brought a huge impression to the maritime industry worldwide. With the results of our cooperative work with IMO, we are so glad to announce that we have established a new international platform called “SheFarers”. SheFarers Platform is non-profit and aims to create awareness on women who work at sea, to promote their careers on board and ashore with specialized educational programs, to protect rights of women on board and to facilitate working standards for all women in the industry whom involve in field work.

SheFarers Platform is established in Turkey however always focuses on brining all female seafarers together internationally and the main project area is to set up a new mentorship program for women at sea and ashore in all maritime fields by starting in Turkey.

The first event of SheFarers will be held on 26th of September 2019 which is World Maritime Day and SheFarers invites all to celebrate the theme of “Empowering Women in the Maritime Community” and #iamonboard campaign of IMO.

SheFarers is very active on social media to emphasize women’s recognition in every field of the maritime industry and can be followed on the below accounts

Website: www.shefarers.org
Instagram: @she.farers
Facebook: SheFarers
Twitter: @shefarers
LinkedIn: SheFarers
Direct contact: info@shefarers.org

Capt. Ayse Asli Basak
Co-Founder, SheFarers Platform
Board Member, The Chamber of Marine Engineers, Turkey

ORIGINAL RESEARCH (AR)
4.Ballast Water Treatment System Integration and Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Dry Bulk Carrier
Mesut Tokuş
doi: 10.5505/jems.2019.69672  Pages 196 - 211
Gemiler yük durumlarına göre stabilitelerini korumak için balast suyu sistemlerini kullanırlar. Gemilerin balast tanklarına alınan balast suları çeşitli organizmalar barındırır ve bu organizmalar gittikleri yeni ekosistemde çoğalma şansı bulduklarında istilacı tür haline gelebilirler. Bu zararlı organizmalar gittikleri bölgelerde ekolojiyi, ekonomiyi ve insan sağlığını etkilemektedir. Bu sebepten dolayı uluslararası kuruluşlar balast suyu yönetimi ile ilgili standartlar ve kriterler oluşturmuştur. IMO (International Maritime Organization)’nun Gemi Balast Suları ve Sediment Kontrolü ve Yönetimi Uluslararası Sözleşmesi’nde almış olduğu balast suyu arıtımı ile ilgili D1 ve D2 standartları bulunmaktadır.
IMO’nun getirmiş olduğu kriterlere göre geliştirilen balast suyu arıtma yöntemleri mekanik, fiziksel ve kimyasal olmak üzere üç ana başlıkta incelenmiş, seçim kriterleri oluşturulmuş ve bu kriterlere göre örnek kuru yük gemisine balast suyu arıtma sistemi seçilmiştir. Seçilmiş olan UV+filtreleme sisteminin, örnek kuru yük gemisine entegrasyon çalışması yapılmıştır. Ürünün yaşam döngüsü maliyetleriyle ilgili risk ve belirsizlikler tanımlanmış, yaşam döngüsü maliyet unsurları belirlenmiş ve maliyet analizi yapılmıştır. Sistemin yaklaşık maliyeti 400.000 € olarak bulunmuş olup, maliyet kırılımı incelendiğinde en büyük maliyetin yatırım maliyeti olduğu bulunmuştur.
The ships use ballast water system in order to maintain their stability according to load conditions. Ballast water that is taken to ships’ ballast tank contains various organism. These organisms may become invasive species when they have the chance to reproduce in the new ecosystem they are going to. These harmful organisms affect the ecology, economy and human health in regions where they go. For this reason, international organizations have been set standards and criteria related to ballast water management. IMO (International Maritime Organization) has D1 and D2 standarts related to ballas water trematment received in the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship’ Ballast Water and Sediments.
According to the criteria taken by IMO, ballast water treatment systems have been examined under three main topics; mechanical, physical and chemical. Selection criteria have been established in agreement with the methods examined and ballast water treatment system has been selected for a sample dry cargo vessel with respect to these criteria. The integration of the selected UV + filtering system to the sample dry bulk carrier has been carried out. Besides, life cycle cost elements have been determined for the UV + filtering ballast water treatment system, cost structure has been formed and cost analysis has been carried out. The risks and uncertainties related with the life cycle costs of the product have been defined. The approximate cost of the system was found as €400.000 and when cost breakdown was analyzed the biggest cost was found as the investment cost.

5.Hydrodynamic Investigation of a Submarine Moving Under Free Surface
Ali Doğrul
doi: 10.5505/jems.2019.42204  Pages 212 - 227
Batmış cisimler araştırma, askeri ve ticari uygulamalar gibi pek çok alanda yaygın bir şekilde kullanılmaktadır. Özellikle askeri uygulamalarda denizaltılar sessiz ve caydırıcı bir araç olarak önemli bir role sahiptir. Sanılanın aksine, batmış cisimler serbest yüzey etkilerinin devreye girdiği sığ derinlikte de çalışmaktadır. Bu durum denizaltıları sonar tespitinden korurken görsel olarak tespit edilmelerine sebep olmaktadır. Bu çalışma farklı derinliklerde ilerleyen denizaltının hidrodinamiğine serbest yüzey etkilerinin incelenmesine odaklanmaktadır. Sayısal hesaplamalar 1.5x107 ile 3.5x107 arasındaki Reynolds sayılarında takıntısız ve takıntılı DARPA denizaltısı için yapılmıştır. Ticari bir yazılım yardımıyla URANS denklemleri k-ε türbülans modeli kullanılarak çözülmüştür. Sayısal yöntem ilk önce eldeki deneysel veri ile doğrulanıp onaylanmıştır. Daha sonra sayısal sonuçlar, toplam direnç, direnç bileşenleri ve serbest yüzey deformasyonları açısından değerlendirilmiştir. Sonuç olarak derinlik Froude sayısının 0.7’ den büyük olduğu durumlarda derinliğin dirence önemli bir etkisinin olduğu ve tüm derinliklerde takıntının serbest yüzey deformasyonuna etkisinin çok az olduğu görülmüştür.
Submerged bodies are commonly used in many fields such as scientific researches, military and commercial applications. Especially in military applications, submarines have a significant role as a silent and deterrent vehicle. Contrary to popular belief, submerged bodies also operate in shallow depth that free surface effects come into play. This causes the visual identification of submarines while protecting them from sonar detection. This study focuses on investigation of free surface effects on submarine hydrodynamics moving forward in different depths. The numerical calculations have been conducted at different Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.5x107 to 3.5x107 for both bare and appended forms of DARPA Suboff. A commercial CFD solver has been used solving URANS equations with k-ε turbulence model. The numerical approach has first been verified and validated with the available experimental data. Later, the numerical results have been discussed in terms of total resistance, resistance components and free surface deformations. It has been concluded that the submergence depth has a significant role on resistance components for depth Froude number larger than 0.7 and the appendages have little effect on free surface deformations in all depths.

6.A Qualitative Research on Ship Investments in Turkey
Ersin Fırat Akgül, İsmail Bilge Çetin
doi: 10.5505/jems.2019.72621  Pages 228 - 241
Yüksek miktarda sermaye gerektiren ve diğer yatırım alternatiflerine kıyasla yüksek risk içeren gemi yatırımları, denizcilik işletmeleri için oldukça önemlidir. Bu nedenle, gemi yatırımlarındaki dinamikleri anlamak önem arz etmektedir. Dolayısıyla bu çalışmada, Türk gemi yatırımcılarının gemi yatırımlarını etkileyen faktörlerin belirlenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Bu bağlamda, Türkiye'deki gemi yatırımcıları ile yakın ilişkileri olan ve söz konusu yatırımcıları objektif olarak değerlendirebilecek profesyonellerin bakış açılarına yönelik nitel bir araştırma yapılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgular; Türkiye'de yatırım yapılacak gemi yatırımlarının değerlendirilmesinde; piyasa şartları ve zamanlama, yatırımın geri ödeme süresi, geminin teknik özellikleri ile yatırımcı profili, finansman kapasitesi ve risk algısının gemi yatırımlarında öne çıkan faktörler olduğu tespit edilmiştir.
Ship investments including high amount of capital and high risk compared with other investment alternatives are important in the business life of a shipping firm. Therefore, comprehending dynamics on ship investments is essential. The motive of this study rests on this fact and it is aimed to determine the factors affecting ship investments of Turkish ship investors. In this context, a qualitative examination is employed to understand the nature of ship investments from the perspectives of professionals who have close relations with ship investors in Turkey and who are able to evaluate them in an objective manner. Findings reveals that market conditions and timing, payback period of the investment, technical features of the ship and profile, financing capacity and risk perception of investors have been identified as important criteria in ship investments in Turkey.

7.A Numerical Application of Ship Parametric Roll under Second Generation Stability Criteria
Ferdi Çakıcı
doi: 10.5505/jems.2019.75537  Pages 242 - 251
Bu çalışmada, IMO (Uluslararası Denizcilik Organizasyonu) tarafından yoğun bir şekilde çalışılan yeni nesil stabilite kriterlerinin kullanımı ile referans konteyner gemisi formu C11 için parametrik yalpa hareketi araştırılmıştır. IMO kurallarında göre zafiyet kriteri 1 ve 3. seviye arasında değişmektedir. Seviye 1 uygulaması sadece gemi geometrisine ve hızına bağlı iken, seviye 3 uygulaması güvenilir sağlam yazılımlarla doğrudan stabilite değerlendirmesi yapılmasını gerektirir. Seviye 1’in uygulaması oldukça kolaydır fakat bu seviye aşırı derecede tutucudur. Bu sebeple, mevcut çalışmada uygulaması seviye 1’e kıyasla daha az tutucu ve seviye 3’e göre daha kolay olan seviye 2 uygulanmıştır. Parametrik yalpa değerlendirmesi GM varyasyon yaklaşımı ile elde edilmiştir. Değişik gemi hızları ve dalga yönlerine dayalı olan C2 hesabı kullanılarak yapılan değerlendirme ile mevcut gemi formunun parametrik yalpa rezonansı için zayıf olmadığı tespit edilmiştir.
In this study, the parametric roll motion for the benchmark container ship form C11 is investigated by using the second generation stability criteria, which were intensively studied by IMO (International Maritime Organization). According to the IMO regulations, vulnerability criteria range between 1 and 3. While level 1 is only dependent on ship geometry and speed, level 3 is required to perform direct stability assessment with reliable robust software. The application of level 1 is considerably easy yet it is extremely conservative. Therefore, in the present study, level 2 application is performed that is less conservative than level 1 and easier than level 3. Parametric roll motion is analysed based on GM variation technique. Based on C2 assessment procedure which is calculated as an average of values of different Froude numbers and wave directions, it is found that the benchmark hull C11 was not vulnerable for the parametric roll resonance.

8.The Social Cost and Environmental Life Cycle Analysis of Passenger Ships in Istanbul
Levent Bilgili
doi: 10.5505/jems.2019.75437  Pages 252 - 263
Calculating the inventory of shipping emissions is crucial in order to guide the authorities to prepare regulations on emission reduction. On the other hand, the effectiveness of the measurement techniques can only be accurately observed by the calculation of social costs. In this study, firstly, the emission inventory and social cost of passenger ships operating in Bosphorus are calculated. Then, these calculations were repeated in case of declaration of the Marmara Sea as Emission Control Area (ECA). The total amount of emissions in current situation decreases by 7.75 % in case of ECA declaration. The total cost of fuel switching increases approximately 39.52 %; however the total social cost decreases by 50.56 %. The total economic benefit is calculated as $ 117,739,686.97. According to the LCA results, fuel switching increases the deleterious impacts on human health, ecosystem quality and climate change, while the impacts on raw resources decreased.




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