E-ISSN: 2148-9386
Journal of ETA Maritime Science - JEMS Maritime Sci: 11 (4)
Volume: 11  Issue: 4 - 2023
1.Full Issue

Page I

Selçuk Nas
doi: 10.4274/jems.2023.22599  Page 221
Abstract |Full Text PDF

3.Quantitative Failure Analysis of the Ballast Pump System Onboard a Ship under HAZOP and the Extended CREAM Approach
Muhammet Aydın
doi: 10.4274/jems.2023.79847  Pages 222 - 231
Improper ballasting can lead to severe damage, potentially resulting in loss of life, vessel damage, and environmental disasters. This paper systematically assesses system failures in ballast pump operation related to human errors that contribute to operational risks. Considering this objective, we developed a hybrid approach that combines the Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM) with Hazard and Operability (HAZOP). Within this study’s context, HAZOP analysis is harnessed to pinpoint the risks inherent in intricate ballast operations, a crucial component of maritime safety. By integrating CREAM analysis, a comprehensive understanding of the role of human factors in systematic failures and operational risks is achieved. The research emphasizes the critical role of cognitive activities, including monitoring, planning, diagnosing, and maintaining, in ensuring the safe and efficient operation of ballast pump systems. This study highlights the importance of cognitive functions such as observation, planning, interpretation, and execution in addressing these issues. The HAZOP analysis successfully identifies various potential deviations and failures within the system, providing insights into the complex nature of ballast operations and the significance of human factors. The analysis method effectively pinpoints vulnerabilities and weaknesses, underlining the necessity of meticulous planning and proper execution to mitigate identified failures. By not only delineating the fundamental causal factors behind ballast system failures and the potential consequences of these failures but also aiming to elevate safety control measures, this paper strives to mitigate prospective losses in critical shipboard operations.

4.Evaluating the Technical Efficiency of Dry-Bulk and General Cargo Terminals in Türkiye using Interval DEA
Volkan Efecan
doi: 10.4274/jems.2023.38233  Pages 232 - 241
The efficiency of bulk solid and general cargo terminals, where ore, grain, and many raw materials are handled, plays a crucial role in socioeconomic development and lays the groundwork for reasonable trade costs. This study evaluates the relative performance of dry-bulk and general cargo terminals in Türkiye with interval data envelopment analysis (DEA). The dataset consists of 21 terminals operated by private companies for 2018-2021 and has been transformed into an interval form to apply interval DEA to imprecise data. The results imply that the efficiency levels of dry-bulk and general cargo terminals in the Marmara and Mediterranean tend to increase. It can be inferred that the average efficiency level of the Black Sea terminals has remained stable over the years, and the loss of efficiency in the Aegean is remarkable. The application of the Interval DEA in evaluating the efficiency of dry-bulk and general cargo terminals in the case of imprecise data can contribute significantly to the seaport efficiency literature.

5.Analysis of the Co-integration Between the Number of Cruise Tourists and the World Unemployment Rate
Erdal Arlı, Mehmet Sıtkı Saygılı, Duygu Ülker
doi: 10.4274/jems.2023.46873  Pages 242 - 250
Cruise tourism has a great share in marine tourism and appears to be a fast-growing and income-generating sector in the travel industry. The cruise industry, which has a worldwide income of over 27 billion dollars, contributes to employment through the job opportunities it offers. The aim of this study is to analyze whether there is a short- and long-term co-integration relationship between the number of cruise tourists in the world and the world unemployment rate. In this context, data between 1991 and 2019 were analyzed using the Granger causality and vector error correction (VECM) methods. According to the results, there is an equilibrium relationship between the two series in the long term, a 1% change in the number of world cruise tourists reduces the world unemployment rate by 7.6%, and an imbalance between the two series in the short term will reach equilibrium after approximately three years.

6.A Contemporary Analysis for COVID-19 Pandemic Related Port Congestion in Gemlik Region of Türkiye
Ender Yalçın, Serap Göksu, Can Taş
doi: 10.4274/jems.2023.04900  Pages 251 - 258
Ports are vital global economic hubs that are essential for international trade. The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a significant challenge to ports worldwide, leading to congestion issues. Ships have faced extended waiting times because of heightened health protocols, resulting in increased costs and delayed deliveries. This study utilizes the ARENA simulation tool to analyze the pandemic’s adverse impact on ship port times at a selected port. Weekly ship traffic data and port COVID-19 statistics from 2020 were collected. In 2020, prolonged ship operations and health protocol paperwork contributed to longer ship waiting times in queue. Notably, these delays occurred despite consistent labor and working hour management at the selected port. Average wait times surged from 0.157 to 17.33 min, while maximum waits skyrocketed from 0.285 to 74.977 h. This study underscores the importance of addressing pandemic-induced challenges in port operations.

7.Ship-Generated Waste Management in İstanbul Ports: An Analytical Methodology to Evaluate Waste Reception Performance (WRP)
Duygu Ülker, Serap Göksu, Ender Yalçın, Önder Canbulat
doi: 10.4274/jems.2023.53244  Pages 259 - 269
Ship-generated pollutants constitute a significant portion of marine pollution, prompting the International Maritime Organization to regulate this issue. European countries have also adopted the 2000/59/EC directive on port reception facilities, and environmental performance indicators have gained prominence in European ports. This study examines two ports, Ambarlı and Haydarpaşa, located in İstanbul, Türkiye, a European Union candidate country. The research compares port size and computes their waste reception performance (WRP) indices: ship-based WRP, waste-type-based WRP, and waste-amount-based WRP. Additionally, statistical analysis with the Spearman correlation test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U tests are applied to observe the relation between the number of ships and waste reception amounts. This study enhances ship-generated waste management using port performance indicators to mitigate pollution. The performance indices reveal that although Ambarlı’s port size is larger than that of Haydarpaşa, the WRP of Haydarpaşa is significantly larger than that of Ambarlı. This difference can be attributed to the greater waste volume generated by general cargo ships compared with container ships. Given the differences between terminal types, it is evident that there is no “one size fits all” policy approach, and mitigation strategies need to be tailored to the characteristics of each port.

8.Simulation-Based Cost Evaluation of Maritime Transportation
Davut Pehlivan, Kadir Çiçek
doi: 10.4274/jems.2023.75875  Pages 270 - 281
In a globalized world, maritime transportation is a crucial component for both producers and consumers. In this sector, where 10 billion tons of freight are moved each year, both shippers and carriers grapple with financial obligations. The requirement for ship operators to perform precise cost calculations is growing daily to stay competitive and avoid financial difficulties because of high investment and operational costs. However, traditional costing methods, which are already in use, are believed to be unable to provide businesses with the precise information they require. Therefore, in this study, the cost structure of ship management is examined and the activity-based costing (ABC) method is used with the help of simulation. The data obtained from the ABC model created with simulation support were compared with the companies’ current traditional costing methods. The results show that there is a difference in the calculations between the simulation-based ABC method and the traditional costing method. According to this study, the cost difference is approximately $7,000. Considering that the firm’s annual total cost remains unchanged, it can be assumed that the costs for loadings other than the one under consideration are higher than expected.

9.Practical Design Framework for Lobster-Type Motor Yachts
Bülent İbrahim Turan, Mehmet Akman
doi: 10.4274/jems.2023.69077  Pages 282 - 289
Motor yacht design is a multidisciplinary process that includes qualitative, quantitative, and iterative analyses. There are many personalized design and engineering steps from construction material selection to interior design; therefore, a practical design guide is required. In this study, 27 active lobster-type motor yachts whose overall lengths range from 10.5 m to 22.6 m were investigated in terms of hull and superstructure design and propulsion. Hull forms are modeled with CAD and form characteristics are calculated. Moreover, the hull form, superstructure, and deckhouse design parameters are presented using CAD data, and length-based correlations are made using layouts. In addition, the Savitsky method is used for semi-planning and planning hulls to calculate resistance and power data. The existing conventional diesel-mechanical and diesel-pod drive propulsion systems onboard yachts are compared, and alternative propulsion systems are discussed. Finally, a novel and practical design framework is created for use in the preliminary design phase of lobster-type motor yachts.

10.An Empirical Study on the Influence of Internal and External Factors on Port Enterprise Employee Performance: A Case Study in Indonesia
Larsen Barasa
doi: 10.4274/jems.2023.05657  Pages 290 - 303
Indonesia is an archipelago country with thousands of islands ranging from Sabang to Merauke. Because of these circumstances, port services are essential as a mode of transportation for transporting people or products from one island to another. To improve the performance of port services, the performance of its employees must be consistently upgraded. The purpose of this study was to investigate the components that influence the performance of Port Enterprise (PEs) employees. The total sample for the research is 262 PE employees spread across Jakarta. A survey was used to collect data, which was then processed using principal component factor analysis and ordinary least squares regression techniques. We categorize the factors that influence employee performance into two groups: those connected to the environment/company (external) and those related to employee personal characteristics (internal). According to the regression results, organizational climate, work environment, and job autonomy are work/environment components that have been empirically demonstrated to affect employee performance. Employee adaptability and skill development, on the other hand, represent components related to employee qualities.

11.Risk Assessment for Maritime Container Transportation Security
Ferhan Oral, Serim Paker
doi: 10.4274/jems.2023.80148  Pages 304 - 316
Container shipping is the backbone of the global supply chain, and its security is directly linked to the global economy. Disruptions in container transportation could have severe consequences, such as an increase in transport and insurance costs and damage to the environment and cargo. The first aim of this study is to identify, assess, and prioritize the security risks associated with maritime container transportation using the Delphi technique and to draw a risk map accordingly. The second aim is to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to using SWOT analysis from a security perspective. Maritime container transportation between Türkiye and the Far East serves as a case study for this purpose. As a conclusion of the first part of the study, the risk of cyber-attacks has one of the highest probability factors scored first, war and warlike conditions having the highest impact factor scored second, and piracy and armed robbery scored third in general. In the second part, the SWOT factors are determined and prioritized using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Strengths scored the highest among the main SWOT factors, which indicates that it is more prominent than other factors. Weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to. The overall conclusion drawn is that security risk assessment has become essential given recent technological changes, such as the increasing risk of cyber-attacks on electronic navigational aids, and geopolitics, such as tensions in the Middle East and the South China Sea.

12.Marine and Technical Superintendent Training Programs: A New Step for Marine Engineering, and Maritime Transportation and Management Engineers
Veysi Başhan
doi: 10.4274/jems.2023.67625  Pages 317 - 318
In pursuit of elevating the standards of technical management within the maritime industry, UCTEA, the Chamber of Turkish Marine Engineers (GEMIMO), has instituted the “Marine and Technical Superintendent Training Programs”. This document provides an overview of these programs, their objectives, content, and significance within the maritime sector.

13.Reviewer List of Volume 11 Issue 4 (2023)

Page E1
Abstract |Full Text PDF

14.2023 Reviewer Index

Page E2
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15.2023 Author Index

Page E3
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16.2023 Subject Index

Pages E4 - E5
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